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(a) The lswn model. (b) Fire pattern, after point ignition illustrating lswn effects: clustering, fire fingers, and lacunarity. The red area corresponds to the burning zone and the black area to the burned zone. Here, , , , , and .
(a) Laboratory-scale model validation: predicted fire perimeters (solid line) against experimental data (symbols) for upslope conditions, 78 s after point ignition. The fuel bed was composed of pine needles (Pinus Pinaster). (b) Full-scale validation: it concerns an arson forest fire that burned approximately 700 ha near Lancon in Provence (France, 2005). The fire was ignited at 0940 LT at two different locations. Model results (black lines) were compared with global positioning system (GPS) recording (white line) fire contours at 1200 LT and 1434 LT. Discrepancies in the lateral extension of the fire were due to the fire crew intervention which took place at approximately 1300 LT. This was not introduced into the model because of lack of information on the exact location and nature of the fire fighting task force deployed.
(a) Percolation threshold vs the AR with . The straight line represents the best fit of model results as . (b) Critical exponents of the average burned mass and correlation length, (triangles) and (squares), and fractal dimension of burned mass at , (circles), vs AR. (c) The correlation length critical exponent vs the system dimension . The square symbol is the exponent corresponding to a propagation fractal dimension of 1.3. The straight line represents the best fit of data as .
Critical exponents of fire propagation. is deduced from .
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