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Schematic diagrams for the (a) membrane with a thickness gradient prepared by argon-ion milling with an ion source gun located at the lower side and (b) nanopores with various thicknesses directly drilled by using a focused electron beam with in situ TEM. , , and represent the expansion of the nanopore, the stable nanopore with a critical thickness, and the shrinkage of the nanopore, respectively.
TEM images of thinner elliptical nanopores electron irradiated for (a) 0, (b) 10, (c) 20, or (d) 30 min, of elliptical nanopores with a critical thickness electron irradiated for (e) 0, (f) 10, (g) 20, or (h) 30 min, of thicker elliptical nanopore electron irradiated for (i) 0, (j) 10, (k) 20, or (l) 30 min, and (m) ratios as functions of the irradiation time for elliptical nanopores. The scale bar corresponds to 10 nm. , , and represent the expansion of the nanopore, the stable nanopore with a critical thickness, and the shrinkage of the nanopore, respectively.
Schematic diagrams for the stress fields in [(a)–(c)] expanding elliptical nanopores and [(d)–(f)] shrinking nanopores.
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