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(a) Schematics of the bottom-up fabrication process for vertical CNF interconnects. (b) SEM image of the as-grown CNF forest. (c) SEM image of the cross section of vertical CNF interconnects embedded in prepared by focused ion beam milling. Scale bars in (b) and (c) are 10 and , respectively.
Secondary electron images of top surface with exposed CNF tips with various electron beam energies of (a) 30 keV, (b) 20 keV, (c) 10 keV, (d) 5 keV, (e) 2 keV, (f) 1.5 keV, (g) 1.0 keV, (h) 0.5 keV, (i) 0.3 keV, and (j) 0.1 keV. The imaged areas of these micrographs are the same. Scale bar is . Arrows (A)–(C) shows the unexposed CNFs and arrows (D)–(G) indicate the void in . (k) Schematics of the total electron emission yield of . and are the cross-over energies where becomes unity. is the energy above which the beam penetrates the filling. (l) SEM image of overpolished top surface. Scale bar is .
[(a) and (b)] Schematics of the beam penetration in the thin residue on unexposed CNFs (top) and the corresponding SEM images expected (bottom). (c) Backscattered-electron-induced secondary electron [or SE(2)] model of the void detection (top) and the corresponding SEM images (bottom). (d) SE-suppression model of the void detection (top) and the corresponding SEM images (bottom).
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