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(a) Initial hysteresis without applying bias. (b) Reverse-bias-induced bipolar switching behavior after applying different reverse biases from . The inset shows the device structure.
(a) Between write and erase bias pulses, the low (high) resistance states were read out with . (b) Bistable low resistance state and high resistance state switchings were achieved by applying a train of periodic pulses. (c) The resistance states are stable, without detectable signs of degradation over .
(a) Thick Schottky-like barrier formed at the interface prevents electrons tunneling, corresponding to high resistance state. (b) The oxygen vacancies accumulate into the interface and are trapped there, resulting in the barrier width narrowing, which corresponds to low resistance state.
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