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In situ analysis of Ge films annealed in flowing He ( ) at a ramp rate. (a) Heat flow measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (DuPont DSC 2910, using freestanding films released from the substrate). (b) Optical reflectivity (in volts, measured with Tencor FLX-2908, ). (c) Sheet resistance . Inset: Blowup of the region near .(d) Stress vs temperature (measured in FLX-2908).
(a) In situ XRD of Ge films during a ramp anneal in He. At crystallization, Bragg peaks of Sb with Ge in solid solution are seen. Ge (111) peak appears at . [(b)–(d)] Cross sectional TEM of . (b) After anneal to , the films are amorphous. (c) At , the films are crystalline with a columnar grain structure. (d) At the grains are equiaxed.
Cross sectional scanning TEM and EDX spectrometry (using FEI Tecnai F20) of samples annealed at in He to (a) , where Ge distribution is uniform, and to (b) (above ), where Ge precipitates are found near the interface and along the grains.
In situ DSC of Ge films near melting. In the two cycles shown, the ratio of the area under the Sb peak to that under the eutectic peak for the first thermal cycle is 0.14 and that for the second cycle is 0.61, with an increase of 0.47, which is also the percentage decrease of the eutectic peak from the first to the second thermal cycle.
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