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FESEMs of (a) the fabricated nanorod array, (b) GaN nuclei on the NAPSS as growth seeds, (c) the GaN epilayer on a NAPSS in the cross-sectional view, and (d) the epitaxial pits on the -GaN surface.
The TEM images of the GaN/sapphire interface for the GaN epilayer grown on (a) a planar sapphire substrate and (b) on a NAPSS. The inset of (b) shows the dislocation bending phenomenon with visible turning points.
The schematics of (a) the overgrowth process and the formation of dislocations, stacking faults, and voids at the initial stage of epitaxy, and (b) four potential mechanisms accounted for the reduction of the TDD.
Electrical and optical properties of a NAPSS and a conventional LED: (a) the current-voltage curves, where the inset shows a schematic of a NAPSS LED, and (b) the current-output power curves, where the inset shows the electroluminescence spectra for both devices at a driving current of 20 mA.
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