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Numerical simulation of the photodiode deflection for the Biolever in water tapping on mica. Examples of oscillations with (a) single, (b) double, and (c) triple impacts correspond to , , and , respectively.
Numerical simulations of phase versus amplitude ratio for the (a) Biolever and (b) MAClever approaching a stiff sample (mica, ) and a soft sample (). Grazing trajectories with two (G2) and three (G3) impacts mark the onset of the corresponding multiple impact regime.
Experimental phase vs amplitude ratio on mica and a single layer of PM using the MAClever (, ) in buffer solution. Nonsmooth points in the phase are attributed to grazing trajectories which mark the onset of the indicated multiple impact regime. Shown in the inset (Ref. 20) is the topography of PM deposited on mica and the approximate locations where the phase curves were extracted.
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