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(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the lamella structure that was extracted using the focused ion beam. (b) Transmission electron image of the extracted lamella. From bottom to top the layers are silicon, the bonded silver layer, lithium niobate, and the protective platinum layer. (c) At higher magnification, the lithium niobate layer shows a strained interface, followed by a single crystalline region, and finally an amorphous damage region. The diffraction pattern (inset) was taken in the region enclosed by the red box.
(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the lithium niobate bonded to silicon with a silver bonding layer. Ellipsoidal voids can be seen half way through the partially bonded silver layer. (b) A transmission electron microscope image of one of the voids shows an intermediate stage between initial contact of the two silver layers and complete bonding, Fig. 3(d).
Focused ion beam images of the deposited silver films before and after annealing, (a) and (b), respectively. The average grain sizes were 53 nm in (a) and 400 nm in (b). Transmission electron microscope images of the silver layer before and after bonding, (c) and (d), respectively, show that grain growth during the annealing process has completely removed the interface between the original silver bonding layers.
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