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Schematic of hybrid metamaterials used as electrically driven terahertz modulators. (a) A metamaterial design (device A) having a very large Schottky electrical pad, a surrounding Ohmic contact, and a regular lattice parameter. (b) A second design (device B) with significantly smaller Schottky electrical pad, an interdigitated Ohmic contact, a larger lattice parameter, and an overall smaller active area.
Time-domain measurements of terahertz modulation signal when applying an ac voltage alternating between 0 and (a) to device A and (b) to the photoconductive terahertz transmitter, at frequencies of 1 and , respectively.
Terahertz modulation signals of device A as a function of the modulation frequency when loaded with various external series resistors. The solid curves are fits to the experimental data.
Terahertz modulation signals of device B as a function of the modulation frequency when loaded with 0 and external series resistors. The solid curves are fits to the experimental data.
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