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Towards efficient tin-doped indium oxide (ITO)-free inverted organic solar cells using metal cathodes
4.J. van de Lagemaat, T. M. Barnes, G. Rumbles, S. E. Shaneen, T. J. Coutts, C. Weeks, I. Levitsky, J. Peltola, and P. Glatkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233503 (2006).
10.Used for better processibility, comparable in performance to the commonly available 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane.
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We present zinc phthalocyanine bulk-heterojunction top-illuminated organic solar cells using ultrathin metal layers as transparent top contacts. We show that solar cell performance sensitively depends on the interface and morphology of the cathode, which can be influenced by varying the composition and layer structure of the metal contact. We investigate various metal combinations, such as 3 nm Al/8 nm Ag and 7 nm Al/14 nm Ag, to illustrate the necessity to find a suitable combination of morphology and electrical and optical properties.Solar cells using standard materials and a 1 nm Al/14 nm Agcathode exhibit promising efficiencies of over 2.2%.
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