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Cr -edge spectra on the Cr-doped memory device. (a) The Cr -edge underneath the anode (A) taken after forming (±10 mA) in air and . (b) The Cr -edge at the anode-to-crystal interface (AI) taken after forming in air and . The reference position (R) is approximately away from the electrodes. The insets show schematically the positions where the spectra were collected.
maps at an x-ray energy of 6004.3 eV showing the distribution of the oxygen vacancies in the oxygen octahedrons surrounding Cr for fully formed devices (±10 mA) in (a) air and (b) .
maps at an x-ray energy of 6004.3 eV showing the distribution of the oxygen vacancies in octahedrons surrounding Cr atoms. Taken in seven steps during the forming in air, (a) prior to forming, and (b)–(h) taken after the device was formed to , 1 mA, 2 mA, 4 mA, 6 mA, 8 mA, and 10 mA, respectively. A, P, and C depict integration regions used to characterize the behavior of the oxygen vacancies.
Integrated intensities in three regions of interest, as marked in Fig. 3(a), of the air-formed sample: (A) around the anode interface, (P) around the center of the path, and (C) around the cathode interface.
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