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(a) Connections of , , and clusters in the hexagonal unit cells of and crystals. The , , and stand for , , and units, respectively (Ga and Zn atoms share the site). (b) Schematic diagram describing electron hopping conduction with the total wave function symmetry of each Ga , Zn , and In orbital (dotted lines).
XAS spectra of the amorphous (-1114) and (-2217) films at the (a) O -, (b) In -, (c) Ga -, and (d) Zn -edges. The XAS spectra of the , , and ZnO thin films grown under similar conditions are appended in (a) for an approximate assignment of features, and the FMS calculation results with were appended in the respective figures.
FT EXAFS magnitudes at the (a) In -, (b) Ga -, and (c) Zn -edges for the amorphous (-1114) and (-2217) films and their fitting lines. The split of the Zn–O bond length is clearly shown in (c).
First shell EXAFS fitting results for the (In, Ga, Zn)–O direct bonds in the -IGZO films. is the averaged coordination number, is the phase-corrected real atomic distance, and is the Debye–Waller disorder factor.
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