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(a) Field emission characteristics for the films deposited at various . (b) FN plots corresponding to (a).
UPS spectra for the films deposited at various . Arrows indicate the onset energies corresponding to the VBM.
Predicted energy-band diagrams for the (a) low and (b) high conductivity films under an applied field. The band filled with a darker tone has the higher density of states. CBM: conduction band minimum, VBM: valence band maximum, : Fermi level; and : vacuum level.
Summary of the measured values of , , TOF, and in the low field region.
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