Nanometer resolution piezoresponse force microscopy to study deep submicron ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains
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High-resolution PFM. (a) Main graph—the symmetric dependence of cantilever deflection on around and the increase in resonance frequency with modulating voltage (small graph and symbols on main graph). (b) Comparing the dependence of (top) and (bottom) on to that of reveals that the former behaves similarly to and enhanced to times than the intrinsic value at . The highest linearity is obtained at . (c) A cross section (top left) of an out-of-plane polarization image of a polytwinned area (, bottom left) shows the sensitivity of the method. A closer look at both the out-of-plane (middle) and in-plane (right) cross sections from that area (designated by dashed squares) demonstrates resolution around 90° domain walls. (d) PFM mapping reveals the coexistence of ferroelectric (shaded) and ferroelastic (striped) domains ( twins are highlighted), (e) the simultaneous AFM topography image of the same area .
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Ferroelasticity in thin PZT films. After manipulating the area , striped domains appear in the simultaneous (a) out-of-plane and (b) in-plane PFM images. Whereas artificially patterned antiparallel domains are seen as shaded patterns only in the out-of-plane polarization image, showing the distinction between ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains. (c) A cross section of (d) the out-of-plane PFM image of an individual grain demonstrates a large-scale periodicity of 10 nm width for a single period. (e) The topography of the same area .
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