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Cross-sectional empty state constant-current STM image showing a doping-induced contrast modulation along the  direction in GaN. The maxima are marked by arrows. The steps, oriented primarily along the  direction, do not affect the contrast modulation. The image was measured at applied to the sample and 80 pA tunnel current.
(a) Height profiles of the contrast modulation along the dashed line in Fig. 1. The profiles were acquired at different voltages and with three different tip configurations. The profiles are offset for clarity. Inset: rms roughness of the height profiles for different tunneling voltages acquired with tip 1. (b) Si concentration profile used to simulate the height modulation in (c). (c) Calculated height corrugation arising from the relaxation at the GaN cleavage surface of the strain induced by the model Si doping modulation shown in (b).
Si concentration along the  direction measured by SIMS (circles). The solid line is a smooth for guiding the eye.
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