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(a) The evolution of the circuit conductance as a function of the applied voltage . The inset is a scanning electron microscope image of a gold nanojunction sample before applying voltage stress, together with a schematic illustration of the measurement circuit. Time evolutions of the junction conductance and the junction voltage , when (phase I) (b) and (phase II; ballistic regime) (c).
The critical voltage is plotted as a function of the junction resistance during the entire BJ process for two samples. I and II denote phase I [Fig. 1(b)] and phase II [Fig. 1(c)], respectively.
A histogram of the critical junction voltage accumulated for the region of (phase II; ballistic regime) for three BJ trials. The major peak around coincide with the self-diffusion potentials of gold atoms reported in the literature () (Refs. 6 and 17). The inset is a schematic illustration for the atom diffusion driven by microscopic kinetic energy transfer from a single conduction electron to a single gold atom.
Time evolutions of when junction voltage is set below (320 mV) and above (460 mV) the peak in the histogram of .
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