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Reconstructed holographic phase images of Co/Cu/Py spin-valve slotted nanoring elements showing most common remanent configurations of onion state and flux closure with saturation fields parallel and perpendicular to the slot direction, respectively. Initial saturation direction from bottom-left to top-right. Colored bar shows phase in images ranging from 0 to . Equiphase contours represent phase shifts due to magnetic induction, with contour spacing of 0.2 rad.
Three-step hysteresis loop for Co/Cu/Py spin-valve slotted nanoring element with applied magnetic field parallel to the slot direction. Insert schematics indicate different magnetic coupling between Co and Py layers with onion configurations during the hysteresis cycle.
Reconstructed phase images of spin-valve element illustrating the magnetization configurations of corresponding states in the hysteresis loop of Fig. 2. Applied fields are parallel to the slot direction, horizontally from right to left for (a)–(d), and from left to right for (e)–(h).
(a) Schematic hysteresis loop (solid line) after Fig. 2. Magnetic components separated to represent the individual behavior of: (b) Co (dashed line); and (c) Py (dotted line) layers.
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