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The recoil loops with maximum openness of (a) the single-phase magnet with and (b) the nanocomposite magnet with and . The insets shown in the third quadrant are the three-dimensional model of single-phase and hard-soft phase nanocomposite magnets. and represent the grain size of phase and the thickness of soft phase layer. The insets in the right side give the magnetization distributions at different magnetic history, i.e., upper and lower branches of recoil loop under field . The color red and blue (light and dark in print version) in the distributions represent the magnetic moments with deviation to up and down, respectively. To illustrate the magnetization distributions clearly, the slice plane of only four grains was selected instead of the whole sample.
The dependence of on the maximum reversal field for (a) the single phase magnets with different grain size and (b) the nanocomposite magnets with different soft-phase layer thickness while keeping .
The experimental recoil loops of the single-phase magnets with different grain size.
The exchange energy distribution along (a) two adjacent hard grains for the single-phase magnet and (b) two adjacent hard grains through the soft-phase layer for the nanocomposite magnet. is the angle between two easy-axis directions of the adjacent magnetically hard grains.
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