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Diffraction geometries: (a) GIXRD, showing the sample from top view; (b) , showing the sample in cross-section; and (c) the line coordinate system.
-plot for blanket wafers processed with different metallization thermal treatments, showing (a) measurements made on available  planes, and (b) a fit of the strain-free atomic spacing.
Stress as a function of dielectric porosity for 90 and 500 nm line widths.
Normalized change in hydrostatic stress for 90 nm lines integrated in different dielectrics. The inserts show examples of the low- and air gap stack.
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