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(a) Refractive index reductions calculated for different ratios. The lattice constant is . (b) The etching-depth dependence factor calculated for the epilayer structure.
(a) Top view of the 3D-FDTD model. The air holes are indicated by light-gray circles, and the gray solid line is added to indicate the dimensions of the exciting source used in the simulation. (b) The steady state resonance. (c) The NFP of the electric field. The black lines indicate the innermost air holes surrounding the central defect region.
FFP of the PC-VCSEL. (a) Top view of the FFP. (b) Cross-sectional side view of the FFP in the direction. (c) Cross-sectional side view of the FFP in the direction.
(a) cw characteristics of the fabricated PC-VCSEL. (b) The measured FFPs in the and directions for the cw current of 33 mA. (c) Measured divergence angles of the fabricated PC-VCSEL for different levels of the drive current. (d) Far field profiles of a conventional VCSEL without the photonic crystal structure in the and directions for the current of 10 mA. The inset shows the corresponding curve.
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