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Variation in hardness with annealing time at 298 K for the RT- and the cryo-SPD samples created at 1/s and . Also shown are the microstructures immediately after the SPD (A, B, C) and after 1460 h (D, E) of annealing. Inset A—sporadic twinning (cryo-SPD, 1/s), inset B—uniform dense twinning (cryo-SPD, ), inset C—absence of twinning (RT-SPD, ), inset D—dense twinning (cryo-SPD, ), and inset E—absence of twinning (cryo-SPD, 1/s).
TEM micrograph of copper created by cryo-SPD at 1/s showing discrete nanostructured regions and a nanotwinned region (demarcated by dashed line). SAD pattern (inset) confirms the nanotwinning.
TEM micrographs of copper created by the high-strain rate cryo-SPD showing a uniform nanotwinned region superimposed onto a nanostructured region. Top right inset shows HREM micrograph of the copper. SAD pattern (inset top left) exhibits twin reflections.
Intersection (a) of a deformation twin (b) with a growing subgrain boundary (c) in the high strain rate cryo-SPD sample after 1460 h of annealing.
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