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High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error
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A liquid lens structure with a step response time of 2 ms, a refractive power range of 52 D, and a root-mean-square (rms) wavefront error of 80.3 nm is reported. This lens uses a liquid-liquid interface with a pinned contact line as a variable refractive surface, and its shape is controlled by a piezostack actuator via a built-in hydraulic amplifier. The measured wavefront error suggests that the method of pinning the contact line to a precise shape is an important factor in achieving higher optical performance.
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