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High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.

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FIG. 1.

A photograph of the prototype (a) and cross-sectional views to illustrate its focusing mechanism [(b)–(d)]. The small hole at the left in the photograph is the aperture of the lens. The center of the right circular hollow is the point where the piezostack actuator presses. (The piezostack actuator was detached and is not shown in this photograph). Two liquids with refractive indices of and are interfaced at the circular aperture shown at the left. Light rays are drawn assuming .

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

Three kinds of transient responses when the kinematic viscosity of the infused PDMS was 50 (a), 500 (b), and 5000 cSt (c). The profiles of image variance and captured image sequences are shown, where is the intensity of the pixel at in th frame.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

Optical performance of the prototype. Wavefront errors of the prototype [(a) and (b)], image of a resolution chart projected by the prototype (c) and its refractive power range (d).

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

Step response of the prototype. Top image sequence was captured at 2200 fps through the prototype (a). The voltage input to the actuator (b) and the resulting position (c) are shown below. Focus measures of two regions, the top of the capacitor and the substrate, were extracted from the captured images (d). The capacitor was 11.6 mm in height (e).

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/content/aip/journal/apl/94/22/10.1063/1.3143624
2009-06-02
2014-04-21

Abstract

A liquid lens structure with a step response time of 2 ms, a refractive power range of 52 D, and a root-mean-square (rms) wavefront error of 80.3 nm is reported. This lens uses a liquid-liquid interface with a pinned contact line as a variable refractive surface, and its shape is controlled by a piezostack actuator via a built-in hydraulic amplifier. The measured wavefront error suggests that the method of pinning the contact line to a precise shape is an important factor in achieving higher optical performance.

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Scitation: High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/94/22/10.1063/1.3143624
10.1063/1.3143624
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