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Simple method of light-shift suppression in optical pumping systems
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Modeling of lock-in channels vs microwave carrier frequency, where the in-phase channel is optimized as the microwave error signal. An array representing the different regions in a cell with a light-intensity gradient is combined to obtain the total signal. The top panel shows the zero-crossing region of the middle panel, with both axes magnified. The arrow indicates the quadrature channel output at the in-phase channel zero-crossing.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Experimental setups with different light-shift suppression methods. DL, diode laser; FR, Faraday rotator; PE, pellicle; PO, polarizer; LCW, liquid crystal wave; BS, beam shaper; NDF, neutral density filter; BE, beam expander; I, iris; O, oven; H, horn; HC, Helmholtz coils; L, lens; PD, photodetector; CP, current preamplifier; LA, lock-in amplifier; PID, PID controller; FS, frequency synthesizer; FC, frequency counter; and FG, function generator.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Comparison of laser frequency error signals illustrating that the quadrature method locks to the same frequency as the conventional method, which is a zero-shift frequency. The signal-to-noise ratio of the quadrature method improved at higher temperatures due to increased cell optical thickness.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of clock frequency stability with and without the quadrature method of light-shift suppression.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Quadrature channel error signals for experiment and modeling vs lock-in phase with the local oscillator locked. The different curves denote different fixed laser detuning from the zero-shift frequency.


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Scitation: Simple method of light-shift suppression in optical pumping systems