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The microcontainer shape in electropolymerization on bubbles
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Real-time coherent x-ray microradiographs showing the PPy electropolymerization on a bubble in a pyrrole and aqueous solution. (a) Hydrogen bubble formed by decomposition of water on the working electrode negatively biased at −1.0 V. [(b)–(f)] Electropolymerization on the bubble for a 2.5 V positive bias at (b) 6 s, (c) 15 s, (d) 30 s, (e) 38 s, and (f) 40 s. Note that the bubble is constrained at the three-phase boundary (white arrow) among the gas, the liquid, and the PPy solid.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Schematic diagram of the force balance among , , and at the three-phase boundary for the grown structure in Fig. 1(c). (b) Plot of as a function of the growth time. (c) Plot of the polymerization rate as a function of the growth time. The changes in the deformation force match those of the polymerization rate, suggesting a linear relation between these two quantities.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

FE-SEM images of PPy structures grown with a bias of (a) 1.5 V (sphere), (b) 2.5 V (ellipse), and (c) 3.0 V (cylinder) [scale bar: ]. (d) Plot of as a function of the polymerization rate that is controlled by changing the applied voltage (open circles) in pyrrole or by changing the monomer concentration (closed dots) with a bias of 2.0 V.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: The microcontainer shape in electropolymerization on bubbles