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Transmission geometry strain measurement: represents the load. The x-ray beam is normal to the multilayer film. is the cone with axis formed by all diffraction vectors of reflection with vectors for loading and transverse directions shown explicitly. is the Bragg angle. The diffraction image on the area detector is an actual frame conformed to the perspective view with all captured Cu/Nb rings labeled. The azimuthal angle on the rings is denoted .
Measured in-plane lattice strain as a function of azimuthal angle for reflections Nb110 and Cu220 at applied load levels of 1 GPa (solid lines) and 0.5 GPa (dashed lines). Each curve goes through 72 data points with strain error bars under ±0.05%.
Sketch of the Cu/Nb multilayers. One grain from each phase is shown with white hexagons. The / crystallographic axis of the Cu/Nb grain is normal to the plane of the multilayer. The in-plane orientation is described with the angle . For some , the [1–10], [1–12], and  directions in the Nb grain are shown. See Fig. 1 for the definitions of , , , and .
Applied stress vs lattice strain for all reflections. The macroscopic stress-strain curve (solid black line) is also shown. The inset shows applied stress vs excess elastic strain . The arrow labeled “L. T.” shows the direction of load transfer among grain sets.
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