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Empty-state STM image of an area with four dislocations (see arrows) measured at and 82 pA. The vertical displacement fields of each dislocation are indicated by v-shaped dashed lines. Inset: horizontal gradient illustrating the vertical displacement field of the dislocation in the upper right corner.
Empty-state STM image of a perfect dislocation with a Burgers vector of type measured at and 86 pA. The vertical displacement field is indicated by the v-shaped dashed lines. The solid lines and points show that the Burgers vector has no component along the  direction.
(a) Empty-state STM image of a dislocation with an overall Burgers vector of type dissociated into Shockley partial dislocations and (measured at and 94 pA). (b) Height profile measured along the dashed line in (a). The stacking fault between the two partial dislocations gives rise to a 1/3 ML step. The solid lines and points illustrate that the Burgers vectors has no component along the  direction. Inset: schematic of an intrinsic type 2 stacking fault. Black and white circles represent Ga and N atoms, respectively.
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