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(a) SAND and (b) HRTEM cross-sectional image of as-deposited W-NDs film produced with W composition of .
HRTEM cross-sectional images of W-NDs films with PDA at various temperatures. The W composition of sputter target is . (a) W-NDs film with PDA at . (b) W-NDs film with PDA at .
(a) The density and average size of W-ND as a function of W composition of sputter target. The PDA was performed at . (b) HRTEM cross-sectional image of W-NDs film produced with W composition of and PDA.
High-frequency curves with sweeping gate voltage of ±10 V (a) and hysteresis memory window as a function of sweeping gate bias (b) for capacitors with and without W-NDs. The W-ND density is .
Retention characteristics at zero gate bias and room temperature for W-NDs MOS memory capacitor. The program/erase was done at ±8 and ±10 V for 1 s.
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