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SEM images of two field emitters. [(a) and (b)] show sample A, nonsharpened emitter with apex curvature, and [(c) and (d)] show sample B, sharpened emitter with (1–5) nm apex curvature, respectively.
(a) Schematics of the photoemission electron microscopy and spectroscopy of field emitters excited by pulsed laser. (b) PEEM image of sample A when 4.5 nJ laser pulses irradiate the structure from the bottom left to the top-right direction. (c) Normalized spatially resolved photoelectron energy distribution. The inset shows the same spectra in log scale. The spectra were overlaid for clarity.
(a) PEEM image of sample B having the emitter apex curvature in the order of (1–5) nm. (b) Normalized spatially resolved photoelectron energy spectra when the emitters were excited by 3 nJ pulses. The spectra were shifted vertically for clarity.
Summary of the emitter apex curvature , the calculated and experimental dc field enhancement factors and , and the energy difference between the onset of the low-energy shoulders at the emitter apex and the main TPA peak of the surroundings at 0 eV.
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