Electrowetting on dielectric-based microfluidics for integrated lipid bilayer formation and measurement
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Device structure and droplet movement using EWOD. The device contains three pairs of Ag/AgCl electrodes (black areas) with underlying ITO electrodes (dark gray areas, with the rightmost ITO electrodes outlined in dotted lines) for droplet movement (a). In (b), aqueous droplets surrounded by the lipid-containing organic phase are being positioned prior to an experiment. (A bilayer has formed on the left, while the right droplets are still being moved into position.) Activation of the ITO electrodes causes aqueous droplet movement [(c)–(d)]. After droplet positioning, the electrodes are deactivated and the interfaces of the aqueous droplets relax, forming a bilayer (e). For scale, the length of the square ends of each Ag/AgCl electrode is .
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Electrical measurements of membrane formation and ion channel incorporation. With the initially large droplet separation, the measured background capacitance (proportional to the amplitude of the measured waveform) is large (a), but less than the total capacitance measured upon bilayer formation (b). (c) Gramicidin incorporation was also measured in two bilayers simultaneously (70 mV applied potential).
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