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Typical switching characteristics of a cell.
(a) Local current-voltage conductive AFM measurement on a pristine (30 nm) surface. The inset shows the measurement setup and the current-voltage characteristic between 0 and 1.5 V. (b) The topography of the studied area exhibit a roughness of 0.423 nm.
CAFM measurement on an as-deposited ALD film. The current images with are always in the same area after subsequent SET and RESET operations in the center area . [(a)–(d)] indicate subsequent OFF-ON-OFF-ON states after the SET or RESET operation.
CAFM measurement in an area where first a Cu top electrode was deposited then switched to the LRS and finally etched away again. The sequential read out cycles after SET or RESET show the reversible resistive switching (a) LRS, (b) HRS, (c) LRS, and (d) HRS. The small figures show the corresponding topography. (e) hysterics of a single filament by using the AFM tip as top electrode. SET from −7 to (blue), RESET from to −7 V (current ).
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