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Role of the deep-lying electronic states of in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films
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The electronic structures of vacuum-deposited molybdenum trioxide and of a typical /hole transport material (HTM) interface are determined via ultraviolet and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy. Electron affinity and ionization energy of are found to be 6.7 and 9.68 eV, more than 4 eV larger than generally assumed, leading to a revised interpretation of the role of in hole injection in organic devices. The films are strongly -type. The electronic structure of the oxide/HTM interface shows that hole injection proceeds via electron extraction from the HTM highest occupied molecular orbital through the low-lying conduction band of .
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