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Schema of efficient LDE solar cell. The front contacts to the -type emitter consist of a photolitographically opened grid and subsequent evaporation of Ti/Pd/Ag. A double layer of 35 nm ZnS and 100 nm serves as ARC. Silicon dioxide passivates the front and rear providing a low surface recombination. Contact holes through the form the Al rear contact.
Cells A, B, C from Table I. At wavelengths , the passivation as well as the double layer ARC of cells B, C enhances the EQE. The passivated rear of cells A, C raises the EQE at wavelengths due to lower back side recombination and higher back surface reflection.
Emitter saturation current density extracted from lifetime measurements, with calculated from the data using Eq. (1). Increasing sheet resistance decreases thus increasing . The highest yields , showing the high quality of LDE. With such high values and an improved short circuit current density by front side texturing, LDE cells could exceed 21% efficiency.
Three high performance LDE silicon solar cells on -type FZ wafers (resistivity ). Open circuit voltage , short circuit current density , FF, and cell efficiency are independently confirmed by ISE CalLab under standard test conditions (AM 1.5G spectrum, , ). The cells vary in ARC and rear contacts; cell area is . At present, the short circuit current density limits the cell efficiency due to the nontextured surfaces.
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