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Fluence required for plasma ignition on targets in vacuum from 100 fs to 1 ms pulse duration: . This plot shows that less pulse energy is required to form plasma as decreases, down to about 100 ps. Data labels are explained in Refs. 11 and 12.
Plasma model fitting of published data for on C–H materials, adapted from Ref. 2. Four data subsets were used with distinct Saha equations, including short pulses in UV (Turner, 248 nm, 22 ns) and near IR (Grun, , 5 ns); and long pulses in near IR (Afanas’ev, , 1.5 ms) and mid IR (Gemini, , ). Fitting curves are given for each data set. Names and data labels are explained in Ref. 2.
Equation (14) predicts pulsed laser ablation below and perhaps slightly into the plasma regime. Each point is averaged from 5 to 10 shots, and parameter estimates from modeling and experimental error bars are included ( is one standard deviation).
A combined model for , showing fit to data from vaporization onset into the plasma regime.
Predictions for optimal coupling at low fluence.
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