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The electrical stress time-evolution of the drain current-gate-source voltage characteristics under (a) ac stress and (b) dc gate bias stress. Insets illustrate the conditions of the employed electrical stress.
The electrical stress time-evolution of the gate capacitance-gate voltage characteristics under (a) ac stress and (b) dc gate bias stress. The inset shows the electrical stress time-evolution of hysteresis characteristic in the curve. The FWD/REV stands for the forward/reverse sweep, respectively.
The electrical stress time dependence of the -IGZO DOS extracted by the optical charge pumping method as proposed in our previous work (Ref. 6 ).
The electrical stress time dependence of fitted with stretched exponential time dependence. While the stress time-dependent under a positive dc gate bias is well fitted with a stretched exponential function, that under the ac stress does not follow the stretched exponential time dependence. The inset shows the schematic energy band diagram illustrating the nonuniformity of energy range along the vertical direction of -IGZO active layer in extracting DOS by the optical charge pumping method (Ref. 6 ).
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