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Typical XRD patterns of the ZnO and ZnO:C nanoneedles. Inset is the SEM image of the ZnO:C nanoneedles array, showing the cone sharp with an average length of 250–600 nm.
(a) Magnetic properties of the ZnO:C nanoneedles measured at 5 and 300 K. The inset shows enlarged view of hysteresis loops. (b) ZFC-FC curves of the ZnO:C nanoneedles.
The magnetic field dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity of the ZnO:C nanoneedles measured at 300 K. The applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the sample’s plane with constant current of 0.01 mA. The data after background subtraction is displayed in the inset.
The saturated magnetic moment and hole concentration of the ZnO:C nanoneedles as a function of storage time. The inset shows the dependence of the ZnO:C nanoneedles as a function of annealing temperature.
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