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Magnetization results for perpendicular exchange-biased multilayers where sample 1 is and sample 2 is . Plotted are the coercive field and exchange bias for each sample. From these results we estimate the Néel and blocking temperatures to be 250 and 200 K for sample 1 and 200 and 100 K for sample 2, respectively.
Representative torque curves for sample 1 (a) and sample 2 (b) measured at various temperatures (shown to the right of the graphs). The torque curves have been offset for clarity. For sample 1 there is a minimum in the torque amplitude near . Below the blocking temperature the torque curves are hysteretic. For sample 2 the torque curves indicate a change in symmetry at 300 K, where the total anisotropy changes from in-plane to perpendicular with increasing temperature. The thick solid lines are fits to the torque curves using Eq. (1) and the results are shown in Fig. 3.
First order and second order anisotropies fitted from the torque data for sample 1 (a) and sample 2 (b). For sample 1 we include data for both in-plane (squares) and perpendicular (circles) field cooling. For sample 2 the torque curves below 80 K exhibit large hysteresis and become difficult to accurately fit.
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