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(a) A TEM image of a typical nanotube hybrid with split walls into several cylinders with gaps among them. (b) A high resolution TEM image of a surface layer of the nanotube hybrid with a high density of stacking faults in distribution of molecular layers and with a first stage of nucleation of fullerenelike particles from two topmost layers.
The mama-tubes: (a) A TEM image of a nanotubes 150 nm in diameter, 16 nm in wall thickness and with encapsulated nanoonions ranged from the smallest one of 7.4 nm in diameter (inset) up to more than 100 nm; (b) a TEM image of a nanoparticle situated inside a nanotube with strongly developed facets (Ref. 1); (c) a STM image of a mama-tube with electron density modulations peaked at areas, where nanoonions are situated below the nanotube wall, and with two line profiles in perpendicular and parallel direction with regard to the nanotube axis (d).
The nano-onions: (a) still inside nanotube with broken wall; (b) released from nanotube envelope and self-agglomerated into weakly bonded assemblies; (c) a nanoparticle attached on a surface of nanotube forming the nanobud; (d) a STM image of a released nanoparticle revealing a hexagonal lattice of the top-most sulfur atoms.
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