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A scanning electron micrograph showing the six-bridge structure common to p-sox-p and p-sn-p devices (image is of p-sox-p device). Layer thicknesses are: 277 nm-53 nm-303 nm; 280 nm-50 nm-106 nm. Contrast is altered to highlight the undercut at the anchor points, which are highlighted in white as are three of the six bridges. The gold bond pads are not shown. Inset: a side-view schematic of the layer stack.
(a) Schematic showing how the p-sox-p resonators are driven or detected with dc bias and ac input or output on two different ports. (b) Data from optically driven and electrically detected resonators. The substrate is grounded, and the bottom and top polycrystalline silicon layers have dc connections. The top polycrystalline silicon layer is connected to the input of the analyzer. The four curves show increasing voltage difference between the layers, from 0 V (dotted black) to 7, 11, and 14.6 V. The increase in the resonance frequency of the device is commonly observed and results from electrostatic displacement due to capacitive coupling. (c) Results from electrically driving and detecting the resonators. Three of six peaks are shown, from three of the six total resonators. Both layers have dc bias connections, and the bottom layer is driven by the output of the analyzer, while the top layer is connected to the input of the analyzer. Both frequency and amplitude are seen to shift when the voltage difference between the layers is changed (the substrate is grounded).
(a) Peak detected amplitude divided by dc current for p-sn-p devices as a function of interlayer resistance. Data is from optical drive and electrical detection experiments (see (b)). (b) Data from an optical drive and electrical detection experiment using p-sn-p devices. The peak amplitude from experiments similar to (b) is compiled in the graph in (a). (c) Optical drive and optical detection of a p-sn-p resonator. The curve in (c) demonstrates a linear response of the resonator, while the curve in (b) is nonlinear. It has been necessary to drive the p-sn-p devices nonlinearly to detect any signal electrically.
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