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(a) Top view and (inset) side view of the as-grown ZnO rods. (b) Top view and (inset) 45° tilted view of ZnO:P rods embedded in SOG layer. (c) Low-magnification TEM image of an annealed ZnO:P rod. In the inset is the change in lattice spacing along the a-axis and -axis of the ZnO rod. [(d)–(f)] High-resolution TEM images from different parts of the rod denoted by the rectangular regions in Fig. 1(c). The white arrowhead indicates the growth direction of the rod. (g) SAED pattern of region d from the -ZnO:P rod.
PL spectra of the as-grown ZnO rods, device I and device II taken at 5 K. The inset shows the enlarged area as marked for device II.
characteristics of , , , and -FTO regions in a single ZnO rod. The upper left and lower right insets show the schematic diagram and a SEM image of probing by Zyvex nanomanipulator, respectively.
EL spectra of (a) device I and (b) device II under various injection currents, respectively. The insets show the UV light output intensities as a function of forward injection current. The photographs of corresponding light emissions collected from both [(c) and (e)] front side (Au anode) and [(d) and (f)] back side (single-sided polished sapphire substrate) in these two devices under the same bias voltage of 25 V.
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