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Experimental system: (a) overall test setup and (b) test cell closeup (laser beam is into page).
Time-lapse photos of a 0.1%v graphite nanofluid exposed to a laser irradiance of —arrows indicate direction of motion via a manual translating stage at 1–3 mm/s (the laser spot is in the same position in all frames). Dashed circles indicate separated high concentrations of graphite nanoparticles.
Irradiance needed to locally boil various fluids in this set-up. Characteristic error bars are given for graphite.
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