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Current density-voltage characteristics of a typical memory device. Cross-sectional BFTEM image of sandwiched structure deposited on a (3000 Å)/Si substrate is shown in the right bottom inset.
A series of the cross-sectional HRTEM images of structures observed step by step: (a) Image showing the existence of native aluminum oxide at the aluminum metal surface. (b) Image indicating the broadening of native aluminum oxide by the thermal annealing. (c) Image obtained after depositing amorphous titanium oxide thin film by a 400 cycle PEALD process. (d) Completed cell image after thermal evaporation deposition of the aluminum top electrode.
XPS spectra of (a) and (b) measured as a function of Al thickness on amorphous titanium oxide film deposited by the PEALD process.
Energy filtered-TEM elemental (oxygen) maps of two different samples (the off and on state): (a) EELS based oxygen elemental map of as-grown structure, corresponding to the off state. (b) Oxygen elemental map of the sample applied negative set bias (−3 V) on the top Al electrode, corresponding to the on state. The left insets are the corresponding average intensity profiles obtained from the white rectangular areas. (c) Schematics of the proposed model for bipolar resistive switching of device.
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