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Magnetic tunnel junction on a ferroelectric substrate
4.W. J. Gallagher, S. S. P. Parkin, Y. Lu, X. P. Bian, A. Marley, K. P. Roche, R. A. Altman, S. A. Rishton, C. Jahnes, T. M. Shaw, and G. Xiao, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3741 (1997).
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16.This minimum is located exactly at only in ideal MTJs without magnetic coupling between the electrodes . As the effective field describing this coupling increases, the minimum gradually shifts to smaller values of .
17.A reversible magnetization rotation may be also induced in a ferromagnetic electrode. The calculation shows that rotates gradually in epitaxial Ni films with the initial strain , where is directed along the in-plane face diagonal of the unit cell (Ref. 11). Since such rotation is accompanied by a gradual change of the junction conductance, the MTJ may be also used as a sensor of local piezoelectric strains. It should be noted, however, that the resistance of an MTJ depends not only on the magnetization orientations in the electrodes, but also on the parameters of the tunnel barrier (Ref. 2). The straining of an MTJ, therefore, additionally modifies the junction conductance via the strain-induced changes of the barrier thickness, electron effective mass, and position of the conduction-band edge in the barrier [see H. Kohlstedt, N. A. Pertsev, J. Rodríguez Contreras, and R. Waser, Phys. Rev. B., 72, 125341 (2005)].
18.The hybrid device also differs from the magnetoelectric memory proposed by M. Bibes and A. Barthélémy, Nature Mater. 7, 425 (2008), which requires the use of a multiferroic material with coexisting ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism.
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