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(a) STM image (set point: 50 pA at 1.4 V) of a LT fractured STO surface, the inset shows the high resolution image, (b) the line profile taken as indicated in (a), and (c) the line profile taken as indicated in the inset image.
(a) STM image and (b) image (set point: 50 pA at 1.4 V) after creating holes by positive voltage pulses. (c) Summary of (a) and (b). The size of the dot indicates the width and the color scale is used to describe the depths of the holes. Black dash-dotted line indicates the threshold for creation of holes; red dotted line indicates the threshold for observing electronic structure.
(a) A systematic test for the creation of the hole array by applying 2.4 V pulses for 1 s (post writing image set point: 50 pA at 1.4 V). The histograms of the (b) width and (c) depth of the created holes.
(a) Before and (b) after applying negative bias (−5 V for 3 s) to refill the hole created by 2.4 V for 1 s. (c) The line profiles indicated in (a) and (b).
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