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Oxidation of silver electrodes induces transition from conventional to inverted photovoltaic characteristics in polymer solar cells
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FIG. 1.

(a) A schematic of the device architecture employed in this study; (b) J-V characteristics of device A showing the transition from conventional to inverted photovoltaic characteristics with exposure to air. The device was measured immediately after exposure to air; acquisition continued for 20 min. Insets illustrate the work functions of the electrodes, the energy levels of titania, as well as the HOMO of P3HT and LUMO of PCBM within the bulk heterojunction structure.

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

J-V characteristics as a function of continuous illumination in air for (a) device A, (b) device B, and (c) device C. Time zero of measurement corresponds to 2.5 min after the devices were exposed to air to account for annealing time. The insets show AFM phase contrast micrographs of the silver top electrode for the corresponding devices.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

Normalized (a) , (b) , (c) with exposure to air for all three devices and (d) the required time to achieve 50% or 100% normalized . Time zero of measurement corresponds to 2.5 min after devices were exposed to air. The device parameters were normalized by the maximum values obtained upon saturation (see Fig. 2) so conventional photovoltaic characteristics result in normalized values and inverted photovoltaic characteristics result in normalized values .

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/content/aip/journal/apl/95/18/10.1063/1.3257361
2009-11-03
2014-04-20

Abstract

Oxidation of silver top electrodes in polymersolar cells induces the devices to exhibit a transition from conventional to inverted photovoltaiccharacteristics. As silver oxidizes, its work function increases from 4.3 to 5.0 eV. The silver top electrode thus reverts from collecting electrons to collecting holes during device operation. We have quantified the extent of this transformation and find it to be correlated with the rate of silveroxidation, which we can influence by altering the annealing sequence of the polymer photoactive layer, ultimately varying the grain size of silver in the top electrode.

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Scitation: Oxidation of silver electrodes induces transition from conventional to inverted photovoltaic characteristics in polymer solar cells
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/95/18/10.1063/1.3257361
10.1063/1.3257361
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