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Schematics of the electron point-projection imaging technique. Typical values are and . The dashed arrows illustrate the effect of the photoemitted electron bunch on the Bragg beams.
(a) Snapshot shadow images of photoemitted electron bunch obtained with . The cross-sectional line profiles (black curves) are extracted along the dashed line in the second panel. (b) Fitting curves (lines) of cross-sectional line-profile data (circles) using a Gaussian model considering the projection geometry.
Photoemission from graphite surface: dynamics along the -direction, when . (a) Time-evolution of the electron bunch’s center-of-mass (CoM) and (b) -width. (c) Spatiotemporal evolution of the Bragg peaks and the electron bunch at , showing the bunch CoM (black dots) and its spread (-width) relative to the CoM (gray circles).
Comparison of TSV and VSC effects in UEC investigations of HOPG. (a) Shift of the (0,0,6) Bragg peak in case of perfect pump-probe alignment and projection imaging geometry with . (b) Comparison of the TSV measured by the probing electron beam submerged beneath the HOPG surface in the UEC study (Ref. 24) along with the estimated effect of VSC in that study, based on the VSC dynamics extracted here.
Results of fitting experimental data to the projected Gaussian model.
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