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Diaphragm actuator with a PTBA film and conductive carbon grease coated on both surfaces as the compliant electrodes. (a) Initial device placed in an environmental chamber with chamber temperature rising from room temperature to . (b) Applying 1.8 kV between the two electrodes at followed by cooling down the chamber to room temperature and removing the actuation voltage. (c) Raising chamber temperature to without any external voltage being applied.
Area strain-electrical field plot for the diaphragm actuator in Fig. 1(b).
A Braille cell actuator with SWNT as Joule heating electrode. Two aluminum foils were attached on both ends of the SWNT electrode and connected to a heating power supplier. The six dots were designed with 1.5 mm in diameter each and 2.5 mm center to center distance between two adjacent dots. Each grid on the ruler represents 1 mm distance: (a) heating the SWNT electrode and softening the PTBA film and (b) applying 1.3 kV actuation voltage followed by cooling down the device to room temperature and removing the actuation voltage. Blow out picture is a side view of one of the actuated Braille dots and (c) reapplying the heating power without actuation voltage.
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