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(a) The standard PSF barely changes along the focal region, beyond which the PSF rapidly expands in size. (b) The DHPSF exhibits two lobes that continuously rotate along the axial dimension.
Comparison of DH and standard PSF CRBs, together with the implemented estimator variances in all three spatial dimensions for Gaussian noise. (a), (b), and (c) show the CRBs and variances for , , and dimensions, respectively, as a function of for an SNR of 30. The CRB of the DHPSF is lower and more uniform than the CRB of the standard PSF in all three spatial dimensions.
A detector-limited bright-field DHPSF microscope designed for 3D localization of scattering particles. The imaging path consists of a microscope section and a signal processing section containing a SLM to encode the DHPSF phase mask (upper-left inset) in the Fourier plane. The detected image consists of a diffracted first order containing the DHPSF image, and an undiffracted zeroth order containing the standard PSF image (bottom-right inset).
(a) Standard PSF and (b) DHPSF images of five scatterers located at different transverse and axial positions inside the volume of a glass slide. Scale bars: . While the standard PSF image blurs the particles outside the focal plane, the DHPSF image encodes the axial location of the particles in the rotation angle of the PSF lobes with better sensitivity. (c) 3D position estimation result from the DHPSF image in (b) with standard deviations , 3.9 nm , and 9.1 nm .
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