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Photographs of LC cells based on (a) M1-RM256C and (b) bare M1 aligning layers placed between two crossed polarizers. All M1 layers are entirely irradiated with a polarized light over 20 min at normal incidence following with a nonpolarized light over 3 min at 45° incidence and then the layers of (a) cell are passivated with RM256C. After this a part of one M1 (M1-RM256C) layer in each cell (section I-2 in the photographs) was irradiated over 30 min with the UV light polarized in the direction parallel to the alignment direction induced in the first exposure step. The intensities of polarized and unpolarized light are 3.3 and , respectively. The cells are combined so that alignment directions of the opposite alignment layers induced in the first exposure step are antiparallel. The cell gap is .
Photographs of twist LC cells based on (a) and (b) M1-RM256C and (c) and (d) M1 aligning layers placed between two polarizers. The angle between the polarizers is 90° in (a) and (c), and 10° in (b) and (d). The cell gap is .
The chessboard type alignment pattern with a domain size of about 1 mm realized using M1/RMM256C aligning layers. The structure is viewed in polarizing microscope with crossed polarizer and analyzer. The M1 layers on the cell substrates are exposed to polarized light in the following manner. At first both M1 layers were entirely irradiated and then one M1 layer was irradiated through an aluminum mask with a light polarized in the direction parallel to the alignment direction induced in the first exposure step. Both irradiations are provided a normal incidence of the light. The light intensity was and the exposure time in the 1st and 2nd exposure step was 15 and 30 min, respectively. The exposed M1 films were passivated by RMM256C layers and subsequently used as aligning layers in the cell. The cell gap is .
Pretilt angle vs aging time plots for the cells based on (a) M1-RM256C and (b) M1 aligning layers.
Photographs of two LC cells based on M2/RMM256C (a) and M2 (b) aligning layers after successive periods of backing at . The backing time is 0, 15, 30, and 120 min in case 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The aligned part is a rectangular area in the middle of the cell. The cells are viewed through a pair of crossed polarizers. The cell gap is .
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