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I-V performance shows one OFF state and two ON states. The inset is a schematic drawing of a typical memory device structure.
Continuous current-voltage tests of the device for the ON states. The experiment data are presented by open symbols. The red square and the blue downtriangle data indicate the I-V characteristic of the device in the state in the range of 0 to 4V and 0 to 6V, respectively. The following pink star data has the same scan condition as the blue one but is found to deviate upwards. The wine pentagon plots show the state. The dot line is the curve fit of the state complying with Poole–Frenkel mechanism.
Comparison of multilevel states to the state. The open square is the OFF state. The solid star is the state. All the triangle curves are different multilevel states.
Impedance measurements of the device in different conductive states. (a) The top and the bottom figures show the phase angle and the absolute value of the impedance with respect to the frequency, respectively. The inset draws the model of a capacitor and a resistor connected in parallel. (b) Capacitance ratio of C to with respect to different states. C represents the capacitance of the device in different states, and represents the capacitance of the device in the OFF state tested under high frequency.
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