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Typical XRD patterns of (a) a 51.5-nm-thick anatase film (sample ) and (b) a 50.3-nm-thick anatase film (sample ). Insets show the deviation of the (004) peak from the standard position (marked with a vertical lines) for all the films. The samples notation is labeled and the labels sequence is denoted by the black arrows, indicating the increase of the film thickness. (c) The mean grain size (out-of-plane) as a function of the nominal thickness for both anatase and films. Representative AFM images of (d) a 25.76-nm-thick anatase film (sample ) and (e) a 21.5-nm-thick anatase film (sample ).
Electrical properties of films as a function of mean grain size : (a) conductivity , (b) carrier concentration , and (c) Hall mobility . Solid line indicates the total mobility obtained by least-squares fitting.
as a function of the photon energy for (a) anatase films and (b) anatase films. Insets show as a function of the photon energy (samples notation is the same as in Fig. 1). The dashed lines show the representative linear extrapolations for the determination of the band gap, .
Band gap energy vs mean grain size for the anatase (solid squares) and the anatase (solid circles). For anatase , as a function of mean grain size is also plotted (solid triangles).
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